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This page discusses how various other approaches map to the conceptual model of a research methodology described here.

Research onion

The research onion conceptualisation was proposed by Saunders et al. in 2009[1]. So, how does the approach described in this wiki compare?

  1. Layer 1: Philosophies – This is the same as the Philosophical World View.
  2. Layer 2: Approaches – This level is not specifically covered as a component of a research scheme. However, it could be seen in a Research Approach, which is a property of a Research Design.
  3. Layer 3: Strategies – this is the same as a Research Design.
  4. Layer 4: Choices – This is covered in the approach taken in this wiki where a research design may have one, or more, research methods linked to it. Thus, a research design may be mono- or multi-method.
  5. Layer 5: Time horizons – This layer is not covered as a specific component in the model presented in this wiki.
  6. Layer 6: Techniques and procedures – This layer is made up by the Research Methods.


  1. Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research methods for business students. 5th edition. Pearson education, Harlow.