Help:Adding citations and references

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Apart from where a reference to a research article is directly included on a Research Scheme page, if other citations and references are added, they should be included as footnotes. To keep the text cleaner and easier to read, the approach used in this wiki is to have just a short citation link in the text (<ref name=AuthorYear />), and then the full text of the reference in the References section at the bottom of the page.

If you need to provide a reference for something that you have stated, you need to follow these steps. You can also check the main SWaRM wiki page (or any other page where references have been used) to see how a reference has been added – click on the Edit tab (top right) to see how it was done.

Preparing the reference list

Make sure that there is a section for references near the bottom of the page. Both lines shown below should be added while editing if they are not there – insert them at the point that the references should appear.


Then add the full reference between the <references> and </references> tags.

<ref name=AuthorYear>AuthorSurname, Initials. Year. ''Title''. Source.</ref>
  • Please check that the AuthorYear you are using has not already been used; if it has, then just add a b, or whichever alphabetic character is next, to the end of AuthorDate.
  • Do not leave a space between Author and Year; also, if this is followed by an alphabetic character, do not leave a space.
  • Please include as much detail in a reference as possible to allow another user to find it.
  • Italicise the title of journals, conferences, and books, as would normally be done in the Harvard/APA referencing system – add '' before and after the title to italicise.
  • Hyperlinks (placed in [square brackets]) can be placed in a reference if required; the text that you want to appear should be included in the brackets, leaving just a space after the URL - see how it is done by clicking Edit for this page and checking the links under Further reading. Remember that links you insert should be persistent ones, otherwise there is little point in including it.
  • Please insert it in the reference list so that the references will be in alphabetic order.

Inserting the intext citation

The <ref name=AuthorYear /> citation link is normally added in the text immediately after the point a claim is made (without a space). Remember to include the /> at the end of the citation. This should be above where the References heading appears.

Save the page and check that the citation and reference appear as required. If not, please edit again.

Further reading

Citations and referencing use the Cite tool, and you can read its Usage section for more details on using Cite.

Wikipedia provides an article on Citing sources, which is a useful resource.